Moraxella catarrhalis; Acinetobacter baumannii; pathogenesis; adhesins; virulence; biofilms; vaccine antigens
The importance of Acinetobacter baumannii infections in war-related injuries is now well established. A. baumannii was the most common gram-negative bacillus recovered from traumatic injuries to the lower extremities during the Vietnam War. More recently a new series of infections was reported in U.S. service personnel injured in the Iraq/Kuwait/Afghanistan regions. Likewise, A. baumannii has become an emerging pathogen of increasing importance in Veterans Administration and civilian healthcare facilities, with the incidence of A. baumannii infection increasing worldwide. This emergence of A. baumannii is due in large part to its ability to survive under a wide range of environmental conditions including those within healthcare facilities. Further, infections on foreign bodies such as intravascular devices and orthopedic hardware are virtually impossible to cure with antimicrobials alone. In addition multi- and pandrug resistant isolates are increasing. Thus, there is an increasing concern that A. baumannii strains may acquire new virulence factors that could lead to a sudden and significant rise in untreatable infections worldwide.