Mucosal immunology; immunity to infection; mucosal vaccines; mucosal adjuvants; oral infections; dental caries; sexually transmitted infections; gonorrhea
Dr. Russell's research in mucosal immunity addresses in particular infections of the oral cavity and the genital tract. However, our novel approaches to the development of mucosally administered vaccines may find application to a variety of infections, especially those that are transmitted by respiratory or oral routes, which are the routes most likely to be involved in extreme events whether of natural or man-made origin. Examples of current concern include avian influenza, food- and water-borne diseases, as well as the unsolved problem of HIV infection. Moreover, mass immunization in the event of emergency would be facilitated by oral or intranasal administration that obviates the problems associated with injected vaccines, i.e., requirements for sterility, disposal of needles, and appropriately trained personnel.