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Principal axes of M-DOF structures Part I: Static loading

Zack Liang1 and George C.Lee2

  1. Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
  2. Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA

Abstract: This paper is the first in a two-part series that discusses the principal axes of M-DOF structures subjected to static and dynamic loads. The primary purpose of this series is to understand the magnitude of the dynamic response of structures to enable better design of structures and control modification devices/systems. Under idealized design conditions, the structural responses are obtained by using single direction input ground motions in the direction of the intended control devices/systems, and by assuming that the responses of the structure is decoupleable in three mutually perpendicular directions. This standard practice has been applied to both new and retrofitted structures using various seismic protective systems. Very limited information is available on the effects of neglecting the impact of directional couplings (cross effects – of which torsion is a component) of the dynamic response of structures. In order to quantify such effects, it is necessary to examine the principal axes of structures under both static and dynamic loading.This first paper deals with quantitative definitions of principal axes and “cross effects” of three-dimensional structures under static load by using linear algebra. It shows theoretically that, for three-dimensional structures, such principal axes rarely exist. Under static loading conditions, the cross effect is typically small and negligible from the viewpoint of engineering applications. However, it provides the theoretical base for subsequent quantification of the response couplings under dynamic loads, which is reported in part II of this series.

Keywords: principal axes of M-DOF structures; structural response couplings; cross effect; theoretical base

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Copyright© 2009 IEM. Journal of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as described below, without written permission from the Publisher. Copying of articles is not permitted except for personal and internal use, to the extent permitted by national copyright law, or under the terms of a license issued by the National Reproduction Rights Organization of China.