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By A. Wanitkorkul and A. Filiatrault, 5/26/05, MCEER-05-0005, 206 pages, $35.00
This report provides ensembles of simulated ground motions representative of scenario earthquake events for hypothetical hospital sites on the west and east coasts of the United States. The standardized accelerograms generated have four different hazard levels: 2%, 5%, 10% and 20% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years. A fault configuration similar to the Santa Susana fault in Northridge, California was selected as the prototype configuration for simulating the west coast accelerations. For each hazard level, 25 fault-normal and 25 fault-parallel horizontal accelerations with 25 corresponding vertical accelerograms were generated. Correspondingly for the east coast, two ensembles of earthquakes were simulated, i.e., a short ensemble which contains 50 earthquakes for each hazard level and a long ensemble which contains 100 simulated accelerograms in each ensemble. These simulated earthquakes will be used as input to develop analytical and experimental fragility curves of nonstructural components contained in acute care facilities.
By K. Kesner and S.L. Billington, 8/29/05, MCEER-05-0007, 228 pages, $35.000
This research describes the development of a seismic retrofit system that uses steel reinforced engineered cementitious composite (ECC) materials. Specifically, an infill system made up of portable, precast panels was developed that uses the damage-tolerant and strain hardening properties of ECC materials. Laboratory tests were used to test the strength of pre-tensioned bolted connections between panel members, and to evaluate the response of the infill panels made with various ECC materials, reinforcement layouts and panel geometries. The connection test results showed the viability of the proposed pre-tensioned bolted connections. The panel tests showed that a significant increase in strength and energy dissipation was possible when ECC is used instead of traditional concrete. These results serve as benchmark studies for further development of the infill system.
By N. Murota, M.Q. Feng and G-Y. Liu, 9/30/05, MCEER-05-0008, 244 pages, $35.00
This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the use of base isolation technology for seismic protection of electric power transformers. The lightweight nature and base displacement constraints of power transformers require a different philosophy (from buildings and bridges) in designing a base isolation system. Two isolation systems were developed, one using sliding bearings combined with rubber bearings and the other using segmented high-damping rubber bearings. Tri-axial earthquake simulator testing was performed using a large-scale transformer model equipped with real bushings. Numerical simulation confirmed that the two isolation systems can perform differently under tri-axial ground motions, even when designed with the same force-displacement hysteresis. In conclusion, base isolation technology, when properly designed, was shown to be a highly effective method for seismic protection of power transformers.