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MCEER Bulletin, Volume 24, Number 1, Spring 2010

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Volume 24, Number 1, Spring 2010

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New Technical Reports

 

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Remote Sensing for Resilient Multi-Hazard Disaster Response
Volume I: Introduction to Damage Assessment Methodologies

By Beverley Adams and Ronald Eguchi,
MCEER-08-0020, 11/17/2008, 114 pages, $25.00

This report introduces the use of remote sensing and advanced technologies for resilient multi-hazard disaster response. The roles of technology push and user pull as factors leading to the increasing use of remote sensing within operational disaster situations are discussed, together with their contribution towards enhancing resilience through more rapid and resourceful response. A tiered reconnaissance framework is presented, which serves as a conceptual model for organizing post-disaster deployments. Tier 1 presents a ‘regional’ perspective on damage; Tier 2 offers a more detailed neighborhood presentation of damage within a community; and Tier 3 offers a highly detailed per-building record of loss. The role of MCEER and its Remote Sensing Institute is described, and an overview of 16 events after which MCEER teams have performed laboratory- and field-based damage assessments is presented. This is Volume I of a five part series of reports that investigate the use of remote sensing techniques for resilient multi-hazard disaster response.


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Remote Sensing for Resilient Multi-Hazard Disaster Response
Volume II: Counting the Number of Collapsed Buildings Using an Object-Oriented Analysis: Case Study of the 2003 Bam Earthquake

By Luca Gusella, Charles Huyck and Beverley Adams, MCEER-08-0021, 11/17/2008, 82 pages, $25.00

This report presents a new image processing technique based on ‘object-oriented’ analysis to count the number of buildings that collapsed during the 2003 Bam, Iran earthquake. Two methodologies are presented, both using a two-phase process comprising building inventory development and damage assessment. Building inventory development provides a count of the total number of structures (both damaged and non-damaged) based on analysis of the ‘before’ building stock. The damage assessment employs reclassification and edge extraction theoretical techniques to identify the presence of collapsed structures. This is Volume II of a five part series of reports that investigate the use of remote sensing techniques for resilient multi-hazard disaster response.


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Remote Sensing for Resilient Multi-Hazard Disaster Response
Volume III: Multi-Sensor Image Fusion Techniques for Robust Neighborhood-Scale Urban Damage Assessment

By Beverley Adams and Anneley McMillan, MCEER-08-0022, 11/17/2008, 162 pages, $30.00

This report investigates multi-sensor pixel-based image fusion methodologies, combining ‘before’ and ‘after’ images from two different high-resolution optical satellites (Quickbird and IKONOS), to assess neighborhood damage extent and severity. The 2003 earthquake that struck Bam, Iran is used as a case study. Three different pixel-based methodological approaches were used to investigate damage-related changes: spectral comparison, textural comparison and edge-based comparison. The results showed that all three damage detection methods successfully identified building collapse within neighborhoods of Bam. This is Volume III of a five part series of reports that investigate the use of remote sensing techniques for resilient multi-hazard disaster response.


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Remote Sensing for Resilient Multi-Hazard Disaster Response
Volume IV: A Study of Multi-Temporal and Multi-Resolution SAR Imagery for Post-Katrina Flood Monitoring in New Orleans

By Anneley McMillan, Jeremy Morley, Beverley Adams and Simon Chesworth, MCEER-08-0023, 11/17/2008, 96 pages, $25.00

This report investigates the use of cloud-penetrating radar to assess the extent of flooding throughout storm-ridden areas. Multi-resolution SAR data using fine-beam and standard-beam Radarsat-1 scenes was investigated through a case study of the New Orleans flood following Hurricane Katrina. Few prior studies have addressed urban flood detection using SAR, because of complicating double and triple bounce effects that commonly affect urban SAR response. In the case of New Orleans, initial exploratory assessments of Radarsat imagery acquired at the time of flooding indicated that the flooded urban area showed increased backscatter. This is Volume IV of a five part series of reports that investigate the use of remote sensing techniques for resilient multi-hazard disaster response.


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Remote Sensing for Resilient Multi-Hazard Disaster Response
Volume V: Integration of Remote Sensing Imagery and VIEWS Field Data for Post-Hurricane Charley Building Damage Assessment

By J. Arn Womble, Kishor Mehta and Beverley Adams, MCEER-08-0024, 11/17/2008, 102 pages, $25.00

This report investigates the use of remote sensing and advanced field data collection technologies to improve response to extreme windstorm events. Perishable field data collected by the VIEWSTM system in the aftermath of Hurricanes Charley and Ivan were analyzed, resulting in the development of a HAZUS-compatible remote sensing-based damage scale for wind. Then, quantitative characteristics of windstorm damage to buildings, debris surrounding buildings, and surrogate indicators of damage such as the presence of blue tarpaulins or roof covers, were investigated. The study found that while remote sensing and advanced field survey techniques do not replace detailed forensic studies of building damage, they provide complementary information about the overall damage conditions of buildings as well as the spatial distribution of perishable damage characteristics throughout a region. This report is Volume V of a five part series that investigates the use of remote sensing techniques for resilient multi-hazard disaster response.


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Development of a Steel Plate Shear Wall Bridge Pier System Conceived from a Multi-Hazard Perspective

By David Keller and Michel Bruneau, MCEER-08-0030, 12/19/08, 244 pages, $35.00

This report introduces an innovative and integrative concept of a bridge box pier system that incorporates Steel Plate Shear Walls (SPSW) to resist multiple hazards including earthquakes, vehicle collisions, tsunamis (and indirectly storm surges), and blasts. The proposed bridge pier concept simultaneously considers the constraints and demands for each hazard of interest. Simplified approaches for multi-hazard analyses and design are presented. Additionally, nonlinear finite element analyses are performed to better understand the system’s behavior. It is found that the system has adequate ductility, redundancy and strength to resist each of the hazards.


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Modal Analysis of Arbitrarily Damped Three-Dimensional Linear Structures Subjected to Seismic Excitations

By Yi-Lun Chu, Jianwei Song and George C. Lee, MCEER-09-0001, 1/31/09, 228 pages, $35.00

This report presents a theoretical framework for the seismic analysis of arbitrarily damped three dimensional linear structures. A complex 3-D modal analysis-based approach is developed to estimate the seismic responses to multi-directional excitations, accounting for effects of out-of plane coupled motions and over-damped vibration modes. The procedures are suitable for the seismic analysis of structures with complex geometric shapes enhanced with damping devices introducing non-classical damping. A new modal combination rule, based on the theory of stationary random vibration and the existence of principal axes of ground motions, is developed to calculate the peak responses of structures subjected to seismic inputs given in terms of response spectra. The proposed modal combination considers correlations among perpendicular excitation components and between vibration modes. Finally, an over-damped mode response spectrum that accounts for the peak modal response resulting from the over-damped modes is proposed.


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Air-Blast Effects on Structural Shapes

By G. Ballantyne, A.S. Whittaker, A.J. Aref and G.F. Dargush, MCEER-09-0002, 2/2/09, 120 pages, $25.00

This report investigates the effect of short-duration blast loadings on structural shapes of finite width. A series of numerical analyses on W-shapes are performed using a computational fluid dynamics code. Results such as peak reflected overpressure and reflected impulse are compared to values computed using empirical data reported in the literature for reflecting surfaces of infinite width. Significant reductions in loading are observed. The finiteness of the width dimension allows a low pressure wave to propagate inwards on the front surface of the section, lowering the pressure more quickly than if the section had infinite width. As the blast wave engulfs the section over its width and depth, there is a component of positive pressure on the rear face of the section that opposes the positive pressure on the front surface, which can substantially reduce the net pressure loading below that computed using empirical data. The percentage reduction varies as a function of the size of charge and standoff distance, with the largest reductions observed for small charges and large standoff distances.


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Water Supply Performance During Earthquakes and Extreme Events

By Amanda L. Bonneau and Thomas D. O’Rourke, MCEER-09-0003, 2/16/09, 252 pages, $35.00

This report presents the development of a functional Decision Support System for the seismic and multi-hazard performance of water supplies. An improved hydraulic network model of the full 2007 Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) water distribution system is presented. The improved model includes an enhanced simulation of the time-dependent response, all sources of earthquake damage, and fragility curves to probabilistically characterize the seismic damage to facilities such as tanks, reservoirs, regulation stations and pumps. The network model is validated through comparison of model results for the effects of the 1994 Northridge earthquake with actual areas of lost water service as well as pre- and post-earthquake flow measurements documented by LADWP. An actual decision support problem faced by LADWP system management is used to demonstrate the application of the proposed methodology. The LADWP is modeled with and without several key reservoirs, which have been removed from service to meet water quality standards, to assess their influence on supplying water after an earthquake. It is demonstrated that opening the disconnected reservoirs immediately after a severe earthquake improves serviceability, with the most substantial impact in areas with the highest population densities.


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Generalized Linear (Mixed) Models of Post-Earthquake Ignitions

By R.A. Davidson, MCEER-09-0004, 7/20/09, 124 pages, $25.00

This report presents a comprehensive approach to statistical modeling of post-earthquake ignitions and to data compilation for such modeling, and applies it to present day California. Specifically, regression models are developed that can be used to estimate the number of ignitions per census tract as a function of tract characteristics and the ground shaking experienced in a specified earthquake. The new approach recognizes the discrete nature of ignition counts by using generalized linear and generalized linear mixed models for the first time in this type of application. It includes careful model selection and goodness-of-fit analyses, examines multiple covariates to estimate ignitions, and uses a census tract as a unit of study to enable better estimates at a finer geographic resolution.


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IDARC2D Version 7.0: A Program for the Inelastic Damage Analysis of Structures

By A.M. Reinhorn, H. Roh, M. Sivaselvan, S.K. Kunnath, R.E. Valles, A. Madan, C. Li, R. Lobo and Y.J. Park, MCEER-09-0006, 7/28/09, 406 pages, $60.00

This report summarizes the enhanced modeling and analysis capabilities of the IDARC program series for analysis, design and support of experimental studies. The analytical models described include frame structures with rigid or semi-rigid connections made of beams, columns, shear walls, connecting beams, edge elements, infill masonry panels, inelastic discrete springs (connectors), and damping braces (viscoelastic, viscous, friction and hysteretic). Hysteretic models with improved degradation parameters can trace sections to complete collapse. The nonlinear characteristics of the analytical models are based on a flexibility formulation and an improved distributed plasticity with yield penetration model. Properties of members are calculated by fiber models or by formulations based on mechanics. The analysis techniques include improved nonlinear static analysis (with monotonic and cyclic loadings), nonlinear dynamic analysis with multi-component ground motions and gravity loads, and quasi-static analysis of the type required by laboratory experiments. The analyses include enhanced evaluation of inelastic response through damage analysis of members and the global structure, using methods based on energy, stiffness and ductility including monitored damage progression. Finally, new case studies are included as examples of use of inelastic analyses.


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Enhancements to Hospital Resiliency: Improving Emergency Planning for and Response to Hurricanes

By Daniel B. Hess and Lucy A. Arendt, MCEER-09-0007, 7/20/09, 78 pages, $25.00

This report extends research previously conducted by the authors about the maintenance of critical lifelines (water, power, hospitals) and critical infrastructure following extreme events. The authors examined hospital decision making in the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and Hurricane Gustav in 2008. During on-site interviews in New Orleans shortly after Hurricane Katrina, hospital administrators were quick to identify changes they intended to make to emergency procedures, most driven by the severely negative outcomes of Hurricane Katrina. The current research, which reports on hospital experiences during Hurricane Gustav three years after Hurricane Katrina, represents the “post” phase of a naturally occurring “pre-post” experiment by documenting the changes to emergency planning— precipitated by hospitals’ experiences during Hurricane Katrina—and subsequently operationalized during Hurricane Gustav.


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Assessment of Base-Isolated Nuclear Structures for Design and Beyond-Design Basis Earthquake Shaking

By Y.N. Huang, A.S. Whittaker, R.P. Kennedy and R.L. Mayes, MCEER-09-0008, 8/20/09, 152 pages, $30.00

This report presents the technical basis for proposed changes to the 2010 edition of ASCE Standard 4, Seismic Analysis of Safety-related Nuclear Structures. Three performance statements to achieve the objectives of ASCE 43-05, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems and Components in Nuclear Facilities, are assessed: (1) individual isolators shall suffer no damage for design level earthquake shaking, (2) the probability of the isolated nuclear structure impacting surrounding structure (moat) for 100% (150%) design level earthquake shaking is 1% (10%) or less, and (3) individual isolators sustain gravity and earthquake-induced axial loads at 90th percentile lateral displacements consistent with 150% design level earthquake shaking. Nonlinear response-history analysis is performed in support of items (2) and (3), accounting for the variability in both earthquake ground motions and seismic isolator properties. Eleven sets of ground motions are recommended for response-history analysis of base isolated nuclear structures.


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Quantification of Disaster Resilience of Health Care Facilities

By G.P. Cimellaro, C. Fumo, A.M Reinhorn and M. Bruneau, MCEER-09-0009, 9/14/09, 212 pages, $35.00

This report presents concepts of disaster resilience of constructed infrastructure and proposes a methodology for its quantitative evaluation. A unified terminology framework is proposed and implemented for resilience evaluation of health care facilities subjected to earthquakes. The framework is formulated and exemplified for an existing medical facility and a hospital network. In addition, an organizational model describing the functionality of the emergency service of a hospital is developed and implemented. A hybrid simulation and analytical metamodel is developed to estimate, in real time, the hospital functional capacity and its dynamic response, accounting for the influence of structural and nonstructural physical damage on the hospital organization. Finally, a hospital network is modeled to study the effects on disaster resilience of collaborative operations of health care facilities. The proposed resilience framework captures the effects of disasters, and the effects of preparedness and restoration, and therefore, constitutes a valuable tool for decision makers, designers and engineering practitioners.


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Performance-Based Assessment and Design of Squat Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls

By C.K. Gulec and A.S. Whittaker, MCEER-09-0010, 9/15/09, 326 pages, $35.00

This report investigates the failure mechanisms of shear-critical squat reinforced concrete walls, commonly used in many commercial buildings and safety-related nuclear structures. A database with experimental data obtained from 434 tests is assembled to improve the current state of knowledge on squat wall response. The adequateness of the peak shear strength predictive equations in current design provisions is evaluated, and improved empirical equations are developed. Squat walls are modeled using finite elements to predict their monotonic and cyclic responses. Modeling decisions that are critical to predict the wall responses are explored and recommendations for finite element modeling are made. Macro-level hysteretic models are prepared for a small number of squat walls for which digital load-displacement data are available. The calibrated Ibarra-Krawinkler pinching model is used to properly capture the strength, stiffness degradation and pinching effects in the walls response. Information in the database is used to identify damage states and to develop fragility functions for buildings and safety-related nuclear structures incorporating squat reinforced concrete walls.