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MCEER Bulletin, Volume 25, Number 1, Spring/Summer 2011

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Volume 25, Number 1, 2011

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New Technical Reports

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Modeling and Seismic Evaluation of Nonstructural Components: Testing Frame for Experimental Evaluation of Suspended Ceiling Systems

By Andrei M. Reinhorn, Ki-Pung Ryu and Giuseppe Maddaloni, 6/30/10, MCEER-10-0004, 182 pages, $30

This report describes the development of a new testing facility for the evaluation of suspended ceilings and other nonstructural components that can be used with single or tandem shake tables. The 20 × 50 ft test frame was designed to simulate realistic ceiling performance correlated with the response observed during real earthquakes. The frame has dynamic characteristics with variable frequencies to match those typically found in floors (or roofs) with suspended ceilings. It was also designed to accommodate various structural materials and different framing layouts. Analytical models were developed using SAP2000 to estimate the dynamic properties and complete the design of the test frame. The combined designs of the physical frame and the shake table motion allow for testing a variety of suspended systems while simulating realistic floor motions and eliminating side effects due to wall distortions. Finally, procedures for motion design that can be implemented in other experimental facilities are introduced.


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Impact of Horizontal Boundary Elements Design on Seismic Behavior of Steel Plate Shear Walls

By Ronny Purba and Michel Bruneau, 11/14/10, MCEER-10-0007, 160 pages, $30

The seismic behavior of Steel Plate Shear Walls (SPSWs) with boundary elements that have been designed using two different philoso- New Technical Reports phies is investigated in this study. The first design approach does not guarantee that it can prevent the formation of in-span plastic hinges on horizontal boundary elements; while the second approach guarantees that plastic hinges will only occur at the ends of the horizontal boundary elements. The results from pushover and nonlinear time history analyses showed that the development of in-span plastic hinges has significant consequences on the behavior of the structure. Nonlinear time history analyses further demonstrates that increasing the severity of the ground excitations accentuates the accumulation of plastic incremental deformations on the horizontal boundary elements. This study also investigates the plastic strength of SPSWs with in-span plastic hinges and develops an alternative plastic mechanism to match the results from pushover analysis. A cycle by cycle investigation of horizontal boundary element deformation history under cyclic loading is presented and several key behaviors observed during the cyclic loading history are identified.


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Seismic Testing of a Full-Scale Mid-Rise Building: The NEESWood Capstone Test

By Shiling Pei, John W. van de Lindt, Steven E. Pryor, Hidemaru Shimizu, Hiroshi Isoda and Douglas Rammer, 12/1/10, MCEER-10-0008, 150 pages, $30

This report describes the seismic testing of a full-scale seven-story mid-rise wood frame building. The building was designed using a new performancebased seismic design (PBSD) philosophy developed within the NEESWood project. It was constructed at the E-Defense facility in Miki, Japan over a four-month period with construction materials shipped from the U.S. and Canada. A series of shake table tests were carried out, first on a seven-story hybrid structure with a steel moment frame at the first story. In the second phase, the steel moment frame story was “locked down” with cross bracing members and the sixstory wood-only structure was subjected to three seismic tests, with maximum ground motion intensity approximately corresponding to a 2,475 year return period. The building performed very well with maximum averaged inter-story drifts of about 2% and suffered only minor nonstructural damage. The testing program, called the Capstone test program, was the largest wood frame building shake table test to date and provided a landmark data set for the performance of mid-rise woodframe buildings during earthquakes, and validated the effectiveness of the PBSD procedure developed in the NEESWood project.


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Modeling the Effects of Detonations of High Explosives to Inform Blast-Resistant Design

By Pushkaraj Sherkar, Andrew S. Whittaker and Amjad J. Aref, 12/1/10, MCEER-10-0009, 236 pages, $35

The most common method used in blast-resistant design models structural members as single-degree-offreedom (SDOF) systems and characterizes the blast loading using a peak reflected overpressure and a reflected impulse calculated from empirical design charts such as those provided in UFC-3-340. In this report, a comprehensive survey of different strategies to model detonations in finite element codes LS-DYNA and AUTODYN and the computational fluid dynamics code Air3D was conducted. Significant differences in results calculated using the three models and between the models and UFC- 3-340 were identified. A numerical study was performed using AUTODYN to study the influence of charge shape, charge orientation and point of detonation within the charge on overpressure distributions. Results were compared with those involving a baseline analysis of a spherical charge. A significant dependence on the charge shape and charge orientation was observed. SDOF assumptions are shown to be inappropriate for blastresistant design against detonations of improvised explosive devices at small standoff distances.


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Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Seismic Response of Light-Frame Wood Structures

By Ioannis P. Christovasilis and Andre Filiatrault, 8/8/11, MCEER-11-0001, 330 pages, $35

The research presented in this report focuses on the development of a numerical framework, suitable for nonlinear inelastic, static and dynamic two-dimensional analysis of light-frame wood structures. The framework was validated by simulation examples based on existing experimental results and shake table tests carried out as part of this study as well as other experimental investigations available in the literature. The purpose of the shake table tests was: (1) to benchmark the dynamic characteristics and the seismic performance of a low-rise wood structure with realistic dimensions under various base input intensities, representative of both ordinary and nearfield ground motions in southern California, and (2) to investigate the effect of nonstructural components on the seismic response of the test structure. These examples demonstrated the capability of the model to simulate load paths in the structure and predict variations in strength, stiffness and energy dissipation properties of the lateralload- resisting system. The analysis illustrates that the proposed framework can provide reliable response predictions for structural systems incorporating different geometric configurations, anchorage conditions and gravity loading.


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Proceedings of the Workshop on Improving Earthquake Response of Substation Equipment

Edited by Andrei M. Reinhorn, 9/19/11, MCEER-11-0003, 160 pages, $30

The proceedings of a workshop entitled “Improving Earthquake Response of Substation Equipment,” held on October 24, 2008, at the University at Buffalo are presented in this report. The purpose of the workshop was to engage electric power utility representatives, substation equipment manufacturers, and consultants, to solicit their input to help direct MCEER’s Research and Development Plan for advanced methods for protecting substation equipment. Over 30 participants shared their expertise with the research team and provided comment on a draft R&D plan. Specifically, participants helped to identify issues effecting performance of substation equipment during earthquakes, provided perspectives on the use of advanced damping and isolation technologies to improve equipment performance, and contributed their experience and insights on problems caused by interaction of substation equipment during earthquakes.


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LRFD-Based Analysis and Design Procedures for Bridge Bearings and Seismic Isolators

By M. C. Constantinou, I. Kalpakidis, A. Filiatrault and R.A. Ecker Lay, MCEER-11-0004, 9/26/11, 270 pages, $35.00

Analysis and design procedures for bridge bearings and seismic isolators are presented in this report. The procedures are based on: (1) the LRFD framework, and (2) fundamental principles that include the latest developments and understanding of the behavior of these devices. The new procedures are applicable to both seismically-isolated and conventional bridges. Examples of design of conventional elastomeric and PTFE spherical bearings are presented, as well as examples of detailed design and analysis of the seismic isolation system of a bridge located in California utilizing leadrubber, single Friction Pendulum and triple Friction Pendulum isolators. This report is intended to serve as a resource document for the development of Memoranda to Designers by the California Department of Transportation for the analysis and design of bridge bearings and isolators.