Four New Reports Reviewed
NCEER technical reports are published to communicate specific research data and project results. Reports are written by NCEER-funded researchers, and provide information on a variety of fields of interest in earthquake engineering. The proceedings from conferences and workshops sponsored by NCEER are also published in this series. To order a report reviewed in this issue, fill out the order form and return to NCEER. To request a complete list of titles and prices, contact NCEER Publications, University at Buffalo, Red Jacket Quadrangle, Box 610025, Buffalo, New York 14261-0025, phone: (716) 645-3391; fax: (716) 645-3399; or email: firstname.lastname@example.org. In addition, NCEER's world wide web site offers a complete list of technical reports and their abstracts. Click here to access the Report Listing, Report Abstracts and Report Order Form
Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Seismic Retrofit of Structures with Supplemental Damping: Part III - Viscous Damping Walls
A.M. Reinhorn and C. Li, 10/1/95, NCEER-95-0013, 252 pp., $20.00
This is the third report in a series of NCEER technical reports that examine the capabilities and limitations of passive energy dissipation systems. Comparative studies have been carried out based on analyses and experimental studies using a 1/3 scale reinforced concrete frame. The first report in the series focused on fluid damping devices (NCEER-95-0001). The second in this series investigated friction devices (NCEER-95-0009). This report presents an evaluation of viscous damping walls used as additional braces in welded steel or reinforced concrete frame structures. A mathematical model is suggested for the damping walls using information of properties from empirical relations and a structural analysis platform was adjusted to allow for comprehensive time history analyses of buildings. An evaluation of the efficiency of the dampers using a simplified pushover analysis method was performed and is suggested as an alternative method for the prediction of structural behavior and design.
Seismic Fragility Analysis of Equipment and Structures in a Memphis Electric Substation
J-R. Huo and H.H.M. Hwang, 8/10/95, NCEER-95-0014, 172 pp., $15.00
This report presents a seismic fragility analysis of equipment and structures in an electric substation (#21) in Memphis, Tennessee. The electric substation selected is located near several major hospitals in downtown Memphis, and consists of several major types of equipment and structures, such as 115/12 kV transformers, oil circuit breakers, and switch structures. The failure of equipment and structures is defined as the state at which a component fails to perform its function. The capacity corresponding to this damage state is then established. On the other hand,the seismic response of a component is determined by either a response spectral analysis or a static analysis. The uncertainties in seismic response and capacity are quantified to determine the probabilities of failure corresponding to various levels of ground shaking. The results are displayed as fragility curves. From the fragility analysis results, the seismic performance of equipment and structures in a substation can be revealed. For example, 115/12 kV transformers in Substation 21 are very vulnerable to earthquakes even with moderate magnitude. The fragility analysis results can also provide the necessary data for evaluating the seismic performance of the entire electric substation and for performing a reliability analysis of the electric transmission system.
The Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake of January 17, 1995: Performance of Lifelines
Edited by M. Shinozuka; Major Contributors: D. Ballantyne, R. Borcherdt, I.G. Buckle, T. O'Rourke and A. Schiff, 11/3/95, NCEER-95-0015, 312 pp., $20.00
This report describes the damage to lifelines caused by the 1995 Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) earthquake in Japan. It begins with a summary of the earthquake's seismological characteristics which is followed by separate sections that focus on the performance of lifelines. These are: electric power networks; gas delivery systems; hospitals; telecommunication systems; transportation systems, which include airport facilities, highways and bridges, and underground rapid transit systems; and water supply systems and wastewater systems. For each lifeline, an overview of the system is given, indicating the owner/operator, the location and extent of the service area, the municipalities and communities in the service area, the number of households and industrial/commerical customers served. In addition to descriptions of the individual systems, design criteria for the physical components of individual systems are provided. The performance of each lifeline system is discussed with reference to seismic damage, emergency response, service interruption and restoration.
Optimal Polynomial Control for Linear and Nonlinear Structures
A.K. Agrawal and J.N. Yang, 12/11/95, NCEER-95-0019, 112 pp., $15.00
For practical implementation of active/hybrid control systems, static output feedback control methods, which utilize only the information measured from a limited number of sensors without an observer, have recently proven to be feasible. Accordingly, the authors present a class of optimal polynomial controllers of various orders of linear structures. The performance index to be minimized is quadratic in control and polynomial of an arbitrary number of states. Likewise, they also present a class of optimal polynomial controllers for the peak response reduction of seismically excited nonlinear or hysteretic structures. For each class of controllers, numerical simulations are then performed for various building and control systems combinations. Finally, the authors propose static output polynomial controllers which are extensions of the optimal polynomial controllers mentioned above. Numerical simulations are also presented for the static output controllers.
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