Center Resources

NCEER Technical Reports

Four New Reports Reviewed

NCEER technical reports are published to communicate specific research data and project results. Reports are written by NCEER-funded researchers, and provide information on a variety of fields of interest in earthquake engineering. The proceedings from conferences and workshops sponsored by NCEER are also published in this series. To order a report reviewed in this issue, fill out the order form and return to NCEER. To request a complete list of titles and prices, contact NCEER Publications, University at Buffalo, Red Jacket Quadrangle, Box 610025, Buffalo, New York 14261-0025, phone: (716) 645-3391; fax: (716) 645-3399; or email: In addition, NCEER's world wide web site offers a complete list of technical reports and their abstracts. The world wide web address is .

Note that customers can now use credit cards to purchase technical reports. For more information, contact NCEER Publications.

Establish Representative Pier Types for Comprehensive Study: Eastern United States
J. Kulicki and Z. Prucz, 5/28/96, NCEER-96-0005, 110 pp., $15.00

This report describes bridge types and seismic design and detailing procedures typical of the eastern part of the United States. The companion report, NCEER-96-0006, describes pier types and seismic design and detailing procedures representative of the western U.S. The report contains examples taken from state bridge plans and actual bridge designs. Some of the examples comply with current seismic provisions, while others represent older designs made before these requirements were introduced. Advantages and disadvantages of various bridge configurations and details with respect to seismic behavior are discussed. Historical accounts of changes in bridge design and detailing practices are also included. The bridge pier types included in this report are divided into pile bents, column bents and solid wall piers. The bent cap types include rectangular caps, inverted T-caps and hammerhead caps. The report highlights the unique nature of the seismic response of various bridge configurations and details. Common and dissimilar elements between east and west construction practices are identified.

Establish Representative Pier Types for Comprehensive Study: Western United States
R.A. Imbsen, R.A. Schamber and T.A. Osterkamp, 5/28/96, NCEER-96-0006, 100 pp., $15.00

This report describes bridge pier types and seismic design and detailing procedures for new construction typical of the western U.S. since the mid-1970s. The companion report, NCEER-96-0005, describes pier types and seismic design and detailing procedures representative of the eastern U.S. since about 1980. Representative bridge types and pier type details from nine western states are referenced, including Alaska, Arizona, California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. Column and pier design and detailing issues are described which include: column spiral reinforcement; column shear reinforcement, within the outside potential plastic hinge zones; spirals, hoops or tie requirements into bent caps and footings of fixed columns; column reinforcement lap splice restrictions; column reinforcement recommendations into knee joints; modification of linearly elastic seismic forces by R or Z factors; multi-column bent and pier wall foundation supports; column flares reinforced with minimal transverse and longitudinal reinforcement; fully confined column flares; distinction between a column and pier wall; pier wall confinement reinforcement; and partial height pier walls. Bent cap detailing issues, footing detailing issues, and construction material issues are addressed.

Nonlinear Control Techniques for Dynamical Systems with Uncertain Parameters
R.G. Ghanem and M.I. Bujakov, 5/27/96, NCEER-96-0007, 152 pp., $15.00

This report explores the control of nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems. Several models representing different types of nonlinearities are considered. In particular, the Duffing oscillator and a system coupled to an electro-rheological device are considered. This latter system nonlinearity is characterized by a nonlinear force versus velocity relationship which is itself a function of an external voltage applied across the device. The stabilization problem is considered, along with the problem of tracking combinations of sinusoidal and uniformly translated trajectories. In all these cases, the dynamical parameters of the systems as well as the input excitation, have been assumed to be specified as estimates of the true values, thus adding a certain level of uncertainty to the problem definition. This uncertainty has been dealt with by relying on two robust control algorithms: sliding mode control, and a more general nonlinear robust algorithm. Significant reduction in the oscillation has been achieved in the tasks of stabilization, and satisfactory tracking is noted in the other cases as well. For a nonzero target trajectory, the proposed methods demonstrated the added capability of parameter estimation as well. Time lags associated with actuator dynamics and signal processing have been accounted for and attempts have been made to anticipate the values of the excitation over a finite prediction horizon.

IDARC2D Version 4.0: A Computer Program for the
Inelastic Damage Analysis of Buildings

R.E. Valles, A.M. Reinhorn, S.K. Kunnath, C. Li and A. Madan, 6/3/96, NCEER-96-0010, 350 pp., $20.00

This report summarizes enhancements to the IDARC computer program, which was developed to analyze earthquake-induced damage to inelastic reinforced concrete structures. It synthesizes materials on IDARC presented in previous reports, including NCEER-87-0008, NCEER-92-0022, and other related reports. Enhancements and improvements include: improved plasticity and yield penetration model; new masonry infill panels; new damped bracing systems; new hysteresis models; new global damping formulation; new static pushover analysis; new damage indicators; improved information on damage progression through snapshots; improved computational efficiency of stiffness calculations; and new case studies and examples.

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