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The Marmara, Turkey Earthquake of August  17, 1999: Reconnaissance Report

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Section 1 Introduction
Charles Scawthorn, EQE International, Inc.
Section 2 Seismology
Apostolos Papageorgiou, Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York
2.1 Seismological Parameters
2.2 North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ)
2.3 Fault Slip of the 1999 Marmara Earthquake
2.4 Similarities and Differences Between the North Anatolian Fault and the San Andreas Fault
2.5 Strong Motion Recordings
2.6 Conclusion
2.7 References
Section 3 Geotechnical Effects
James Mitchell, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and Thomas Holzer, U.S. Geological Survey
3.1 Geological Setting
3.2 Ground Motions and Site Response
3.3 Soil Liquefaction
3.4 Landslides and Subsidence
3.5 Behavior of Building Foundations
3.6 Performance of Improved Ground and Earth Structures
3.7 Waterfront Structures
3.8 Geotechnical Effects on Transportation Systems
3.9 Conclusion
3.10 References
Section 4 Structural Damage
Michel Bruneau, Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York
4.1 Past Earthquake History and Damage
4.2 Building Characteristics and Building Codes
4.3 Structural Damage
4.3.1 Foundation Failures
4.3.2 Soft Stories
4.3.3 Strong Beams and Weak Columns
4.3.4 Lack of Column Confinement and Poor Detailing Practice
4.3.5 Miscellaneous
4.4 Damage to Steel Structures
4.5 Other Construction Types, Nonstructural Damage and Seismic Retrofit
4.6 Damage from Aftershocks
4.7 Lessons Learned and Conclusions
4.8 References
Section 5 Damage to the Transportation Infrastructure
John Mander, Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York
5.1 Damage to Highway Bridges
5.1.1 Collapse of the D650 E-80 Motorway Overpass
5.1.2 Collapsed Local River Bridge Near Akyazi
5.1.3 Damage to the E-80 Motorway Bridges over the Sakarya River
5.1.4 Damage to the D310 Overpass that Crosses the E-80 Motorway
5.1.5 Damage to Bridges on the D100 Highway
5.2 Damage to Roads
5.3 Damage to Railways
5.4 Damage to Port Facilities
5.5 Conclusion
Section 6 Performance of Industrial Facilities
Gayle S. Johnson, EQE International, Inc., Mark Aschheim, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Halil Sezen, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley
6.1 Types of Industry
6.1.1 Petrochemical Industry
6.1.2 Automobile Industry
6.2 Summary of Damage and Business Interruption
6.3 Tüpras Refinery Damage
6.3.1 Crude Unit and Stack Collapse
6.3.2 Port Damage and Oil Spill
6.4 Building Performance at Industrial Facilities
6.5 Performance of Non-Building Structures
6.6 Tank Damage
6.7 Equipment Damage
6.8 Other Fires
6.9 Summary
Section 7 Lifeline Performance
Charles Scawthorn, EQE International, Inc.
7.1 Water Systems
7.2 Wastewater
7.3 Electric System
7.4 Gas System
7.5 Summary and Lessons Learned
Section 8 Social, Political and Emergency Response
William Mitchell, Department of Political Science, Baylor University
8.1 Search and Rescue (Initial Response)
8.2 Brief Overview of Emergency Response
8.3 Casualties and Injuries
8.4 Medical Facilities
8.5 Mental Health Services
8.6 Displaced Persons
8.7 Turkish Red Crescent and Other Organizational Response
8.8 Media Response
8.9 Human Impact of the Destruction and Damage
8.10 Recommendations for Further Study
8.11 Conclusions
8.12 References
Section 9 Restoration Activities
Gary Webb, Disaster Research Center, University of Delaware
9.1 Housing and the Earthquake
9.1.1 Estimating the Number of Homeless
9.1.2 Three Types of Tent Cities
9.1.3 Adjusting to Daily Living in the Tent Cities
9.2 Restoration of Education After the Earthquake
9.3 Health Care Facilities and the Earthquake
9.4 Concluding Remarks and Future Research Needs
9.5 References
Section 10 The Marmara Earthquake: A View from Space
Ronald Eguchi, ImageCat, Inc., Charles Huyck, EQE International, Inc., Bijan Houshmand, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California at Los Angeles, Babak Mansouri and Masanobu Shinozuka, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Southern California, Fumio Yamazaki and Masashi Matsuoka, Earthquake Disaster Mitigation Research Center, and Suha Ülgen, IMAGINS - TED
10.1 Purpose of the Trip
10.2 Itinerary
10.3 Field Investigations
10.3.1 New Technologies
10.3.2 Avcilar
10.3.3 Seymen
10.3.4 Adapazari
10.4 Summary



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