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Introduction
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INTRODUCTION

The research accomplishments of the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (now known as the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research) are as numerous as they are varied. Since the Center was established in 1986 by the National Science Foundation, its mission has been to advance the state-of-the-art in earthquake engineering by conducting systematic and sustained research. The Center's strategy is to assemble multidisciplinary teams of researchers and practitioners from a broad cross-section of the earthquake hazard mitigation community. These teams pursue problem-focused studies and for the last three years have addressed the seismic evaluation and retrofit of the civil infrastructure.

Accordingly, the Center's research and implementation plan involves basic and applied research (knowledge discovery) as well as implementation activities and demonstration projects (knowledge transfer). The plan has four major Projects, one for each element of the built environment i.e. one each for buildings and their nonstructural components, lifelines, and highways (including bridges). Research teams are assembled from various disciplines and include experts in seismology, geotechnical and structural engineering, risk and reliability, and the social sciences. They are drawn from throughout the United States and overseas and comprise approximately 100 investigators from 50 institutions in 20 states and 5 countries. This consortium-approach embraces academia, private industry, professional practice and the public sector (federal, state and local government officials).In addition, the Center has contributed to knowledge transfer through its publications and information services and to education and public awareness.

Since it is not possible to describe every Center accomplishment in a report of this size, a cross-section of activities is given to illustrate the content and range of the Center's achievements. The contributions to lifeline engineering and the development of smart materials and intelligent protective systems for buildings and bridges are noteworthy. But also deserving attention is the effort to integrate social sciences with engineering and to address the socioeconomic impacts of earthquakes in a logical way. Center investigators have also been effective in the code development process and have influenced the shape and direction of future codes and standards for both existing and new construction.

As noted above, this collection of technical papers is a selection of the Center's accomplishments during the period 1986 to 1994. It has been published to inform earthquake hazard researchers, professionals and informed lay persons about the knowledge discovered and/or implemented during these past eight years. Each paper identifies the responsible research team and cooperating institutions. A list of references and related publications is included for further reading.

Recent assessments of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) have again recognized that a complex problem such as earthquake hazard mitigation requires a team of multi-disciplinary specialists to join forces to address the problem in a more effective way than in the past. This team should perform basic research in a variety of disciplines followed by coordinated applied studies and the transfer of results to the practicing community. The National Science Foundation established NCEER eight years ago with this objective in mind and the investment is beginning to yield dividends. The accomplishments described in this report demonstrate the validity of the multi-disciplinary, systematic approach and its importance to advancing the state-of-the-art in a timely manner.


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Table of Contents

Buildings and Nonstructural Components

Seismic Response of Unreinforced Masonry Buildings
D. Abrams, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Evaluation and Retrofit of Lightly Reinforced Concrete Buildings
P. Gergely and R. White, Cornell University
A. Reinhorn, University at Buffalo
S. Kunnath, University of Central Florida
IDARC: Computer Program for Inelastic Damage Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures
A. Reinhorn, University at Buffalo
S. Kunnath, University of Central Florida
3D-BASIS: Computer Program Series for Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Three-Dimensional Base Isolated Structures (223kb)Pdficonsmall.gif (198 bytes)
A. Reinhorn and M. Constantinou, University at Buffalo
S. Nagarajaiah, University of Missouri at Columbia
Protective Systems for Buildings: Application of Spherical Sliding Isolation Systems
M. Constantinou, University at Buffalo
Research and Development of Active Control Systems
T.T. Soong, University at Buffalo
Application of Fluid Viscous Dampers to Earthquake Resistant Design
M. Constantinou, University at Buffalo
Seismic Applications of Viscoelastic Dampers
T.T. Soong, University at Buffalo
Seismic Protective Systems for Computers and Data Processing Equipment
T.T. Soong, University at Buffalo
Morbidity and Mortality in the Loma Prieta Earthquake: A Review of Recent Findings
N. Jones, G. Smith, and R. Wagner, The Johns Hopkins University
Development of a Methodology for Making Indirect Estimates of the Built Physical Environment
B. Jones, Cornell University
Earthquake Site Response and Seismic Code Provisions
G. Martin, University of Southern California
R. Dobry, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Participation in the Development of Seismic Provisions for National and Regional Building Codes
P. Gergely, Cornell University
Code Development for Nonstructural Components
T.T. Soong, University at Buffalo

Lifelines and Highways

Quantifying Seismic Hazard and Providing Realistic Ground Motions for Engineering Applications Primarily in the Eastern United States
K. Jacob, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Two- and Three-Dimensional Effects on Ground Motion
A. Papageorgiou, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Soil liquefaction, Large Ground Deformation and Earthquake Resistant Design of Lifelines
T. O'Rourke, Cornell University
Earthquake Performance and Simulation of San Francisco's Auxiliary Water Supply System
T. O'Rourke, Cornell University
Crude Oil Transmission Study
R. Eguchi, EQE International
Systems Analysis for Memphis Light, Gas and Water
M. Shinozuka, Princeton University
Energy Based Seismic Design and Evaluation Procedures for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns
J. Mander, University at Buffalo
Development of Passive and Semi-Active Sliding Bearings
M. Shinozuka, Princeton University
M.Q. Feng, University of California at Irvine
Protective Systems for Bridges: Sliding Seismic Isolation Systems
M. Constantinou, University at Buffalo
Seismic Hazard Assessment of the Queensboro Bridge
I.M. Friedland, NCEER
K. Jacob, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
R. Dobry, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
A Seismic Retrofitting Manual for Highway Bridges
I.G. Buckle and I.M. Friedland, NCEER
Specifications for the Seismic Design of New Highway Bridges
I.G. Buckle, NCEER

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