U.S.-Japan Cooperative Research and Workshops
The proceedings of this workshop are part of a longstanding US-Japan cooperative research activity that focuses on earthquake resistant design of lifeline facilities and countermeasures against soil liquefaction. Since its inception, this activity has assisted other research agendas, such as cooperative research among the U.S. Earthquake Engineering Research Centers and the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Research Program on Urban Earthquake Disaster Mitigation. In the future, US-Japan cooperative research on lifelines and liquefaction will benefit from collaborative experimentation and analytical modeling at many of the superb testing facilities both in Japan and within the George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES).
U.S.-Japan Cooperative Research on Earthquake Resistant Design of Lifeline Facilities and Countermeasures Against Soil Liquefaction
U.S.-Japan research on earthquake resistant design of lifeline facilities focuses on the earthquake performance of lifelines, with emphasis on liquefaction-induced large ground deformations. Large ground deformations are the principal cause of subsurface structural damage during earthquakes. Currently, there is a growing recognition in the civil and earthquake engineering communities of the importance of large ground deformations. Our understanding of the mechanisms of large ground deformations and their effects on lifeline facilities, and our ability to predict the magnitude and distribution of ground displacements have improved substantially in recent years to provide a rational framework for design and protective measures. Both Japanese and U.S. researchers have been working on this topic, and it was recognized that considerable benefits will result from their cooperative efforts to collect case history data and recommend the most appropriate analytical methods and design procedures.
The program was initiated formally in November, 1988 with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Japanese and U.S. sides. The document was signed at a ceremony during a workshop in Tokyo, Japan by K. Kubo, Professor Emeritus of Tokyo University, and M. Shinozuka, the Champion Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Southern California. Professor Kubo signed on behalf of the Association for the Development of Earthquake Prediction (ADEP), the Japanese sponsoring agency. Professor Shinozuka signed on behalf of Robert L. Ketter, then Director of the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER), the U.S. sponsoring agency.
Since 1988, the US-Japan research has materialized into a series of eight workshops:
1. Tokyo, Japan, November 16-19, 1988.
2. Buffalo, NY, September 26-29, 1989.
3. San Francisco, CA, December 17-19, 1990.
4. Honolulu, HI, May 27-29, 1992.
5. Snowbird, UT, September 29-October 1, 1994.
6. Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, June 11-13, 1996.
7. Seattle, WA, August 15-17, 1999.
8. Tokyo, Japan, December 16-18, 2002.
The research program has concentrated on case histories of earthquake-induced ground deformations and their effects on lifeline facilities. In addition to the publication of the case history volumes, the products of the cooperative research include U.S.-Japan workshops and associated publications of the proceedings covering case history data, analytical modeling, experimental studies and recommendations for improved practices.
The U.S.-Japan workshop program is a major instrument for collaboration and cooperative exchange. To date, there have been seven workshops. The first was held in Tokyo and Niigata, Japan on November 16-19, 1988. The proceedings of this workshop were published by the Association for the Development of Earthquake Prediction, and are available from the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering and Research (MCEER).
U.S.-Japan Cooperative Research Program on Urban Earthquake Disaster Mitigation
The U.S.-Japan Cooperative Research Program on Urban Earthquake Disaster Mitigation was launched by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture in the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge, California, and 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu, Japan earthquakes. In 1997, support from this program was extended to the U.S.-Japan collaborative research team to investigate soil liquefaction and its effects on foundations and lifeline systems.
On the U.S. side, the research team involved professors and students from Cornell University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), the University of Southern California (USC), and several U.S. government and industry organizations including, the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), Pacific Gas & Electric Company, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Geological Survey, and URS Corporation. On the Japanese side, the research team consists of professors and students from Kyoto University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, University of Tokyo, Waseda University, and Yamaguchi University, as well as several Japanese government and industry organizations. The main research objective was to investigate the effects of liquefaction-induced deformation on foundations and lifelines systems in the 1994 Northridge and 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquakes, and to propose engineering solutions that mitigate these devastating effects in future earthquakes.
George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES)
NEES is a major research equipment project of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) that focuses on integrated experimentation, computation, databases, and model-based simulation. NEES includes 15 U.S. engineering equipment sites networked through the high performance Internet. NEES will involve advanced experimental and simulation capabilities and provide end-to-end system connectivity to operate distributed experimental research equipment, including teleobservation and teleoperation, thereby enabling computation and distributed simulation for earthquake engineering experimentation. Through NEES, researchers will have remote access to a curated repository of databases, user-developed simulation software, and models for use in model-based simulation and visualization. NEES is an integrated network that facilitates interdisciplinary global collaboration among scientists and engineers. It enables participation from many in the earthquake engineering community, including educators, students, practitioners, and public sector.
The Eighth U.S.-Japan Workshop on Earthquake Resistant Design of Lifeline Facilities and Countermeasures Against Soil Liquefaction
This eighth U.S.-Japan workshop capitalizes on the success of past U.S.-Japan collaborations in geotechnical and lifeline earthquake engineering. The workshop proceedings summarize the findings of U.S.-Japan collaboration on earthquake resistant design of lifelines and remediation against soil liquefaction. It also defines directions for future U.S.-Japan collaboration in geotechnical earthquake engineering. The workshop was co-organized by Prof. M. Hamada, Waseda University, Japan, Prof. T. D. O’Rourke, Cornell University, and Prof. J. P. Bardet, University of Southern California. The workshop took place at the Edmont Hotel, in Tokyo, Japan on December 16-18, 2002. The U.S. participants came from the following universities, federal agencies, engineering consulting firm and local/municipal agencies:
On the Japanese side, the participants originate from the following universities, government agencies and industrial firms:
The workshop findings are released on the Internet through the webserver of the University of Southern California (http://gees.usc.edu/Tokyo2002), and are published as a hardcopy proceedings distributed by MCEER.