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Proceedings of the Workshop on New Approaches to Liquefaction Analysis

Washington, DC, Sunday, January 10, 1999

Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board

Special Report Number
MCEER-99-SP04

Note: The Proceedings of the Workshop on New Approaches to Liquefaction Analysis were originally published in CD-ROM format by the Federal Highway Administration. They are being made available here as courtesy, as the CD-ROM is no longer available. The links  (e.g., the navigation buttons, "return to contents," etc.) were created to work only on the CD-ROM and no longer work on the web version. Unfortunately, this is the only way we can make these files available at this time.

Preface

This web site constitutes the Proceedings of the Workshop on New Approaches to Liquefaction Analysis, which were originally available on CD-ROM. Included are presentation overheads, reference lists, lecture notes, workshop examples, and technical papers contributed by the presenters to the Proceedings. This workshop was held in Washington, D.C., on 10 January 1999, in conjunction with the 78th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. This workshop was sponsored by:

  • TRB Committee on Foundations for Bridges and Other Structures
  • TRB Task Force on Seismic Design of Bridges
  • FHWA Office of Research (OFR)
  • FHWA Office of Technology Application (OTA)
  • Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER)

Please note: Due to copyright restrictions, only the first page of the article is reproduced herein for copyrighted articles submitted by the workshop presenters for inclusion in these Proceedings (e.g., articles form published conference proceedings). However, a detailed citation is given in the Table of Contents for these papers.

Contents

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The chapters below are in Adobe Acrobat .pdf format. If you need to download the Acrobat reader, you can get the latest version here. Some of the files being made available here are very large, which may make them difficult to download, depending on your system resources and method of connecting to the internet. Note: The links  (e.g., the navigation buttons, "return to contents," etc.) were created to work only on the CD-ROM and no longer work on the web version.

An alternative method is to use our FTP (File Transfer Protocol) site. To go to the FTP site, click here.

L. Liu and R. Dobry,
Article: Effect of Liquefaction on Lateral Response of Piles by Centrifuge Model Tests. (1.75 MB) (Reprinted from the January 1995 NCEER Bulletin.)
Reference List: Lateral Spreading Effects on Pile Foundations Due to Soil Liquefaction.(578 KB)
 
R. Dobry, Abdoun, and O'Rourke,
Paper: Evaluation of Pile Response Due to Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading of the Ground. (2.29 MB)( from the Proceedings of the 4th Caltrans Seismic Research Workshop, 9-11 July, 1996.)
Dobry and Abdoun,
Paper (first page only): Post Triggering Response to Liquefied Sand in the Free Field and Near Foundations. (254 KB)( ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication No. 75, Proceedings of the ASCE Specialty Conference on Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics III, Seattle, Washington, 3-8 August 1998, pp. 270-300.)
Ramos and Dobry,
Paper: Centrifuge Modeling of Liquefaction Effects. (1.31 MB) (Progress Report to NCEER, 21 July 1998.)
E. Kavazanjian, Jr.,
Workshop Examples: Examples and Solutions to Workshop Demonstration Problems No. 1 and 2 (1.46 MB) prepared for the TRB Workshop on New Approaches to Liquefaction Analysis, 10 January 1999.)
J. A. Farrar, J. Nickell, M. G. Allen, G. Gobel, and J. Berger,
Paper: Energy Loss in Long Rod Penetration Testing - Terminus Dam Liquefaction Investigation. (415 KB)( ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication No. 75, Proceedings of the ASCE Specialty Conference on Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics III, Seattle, Washington, 3-8 August 1998, pp. 554-567.)
J. A. Farrar,
Paper (first page only): Summary of Standard Penetration Test (SPT) Energy Measurement Experience. (255 KB) Proceedings of the International Conference of Geotechnical Site Characterization, Robertson and Mayne, editors, Atlanta, Georgia, 19-22 April 1998, Balkema, pp. 919-926.)
Technical Report: Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 3, Design Guidance: P J Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering for Highways, Volume 1-Design Principals. (19.7 MB) (FHWA Publication No. FHWA-SA-97-076, May 1997. Note: Chapters 4 and 8 presented in "Kavy.Pdf" supersede Chapters A and 8 of this report.)
Technical Report: Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 3, Design Guidance: Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering for Highways. Volume 2- Design Examples (10.9 MB)( FHWA Publication No. FHWA-SA-97-076, May 1997.)
 
W. D. L. Finn,
Paper: Evolution of Dynamic Analysis in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. (4.61 MB) (prepared for the TRB Workshop on New Approaches to Liquefaction Analysis, 10 January 1999, revised 22 January 1999.)
 
I. M. Friedland, M.S. Power, and R. Mayes, editors
Excerpts: Proceedings of the FHWA/NCEER Workshop on the National Representation of Seismic Ground Motion for New and Existing Highway Facilities. (2.88 MB)( NCEER Technical Report NCEER-97-0010)
I. M. Idriss,
Lecture Notes: An Update to the Seed-Idriss Simplified Procedure for Evaluating Liquefaction Potential. (1.35 MB) (prepared for the TRB Workshop on New Approaches to Liquefaction Analysis, 10 January 1999, revised 22 January 1999.)
Chapter 4 (Ground Motion Characterization) and Chapter 8 (Liquefaction and Seismic Settlement): Reference Manual, Training Course in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. (14.2 MB) (FHWA Publication No. HI-99-012, December 1998. Note: These Chapters supersede chapters 4 and 8 in the FHWA Circular on Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering for Highways, Volume 1.)
 
G. R. Martin,
Presentation Overheads: Remediation of Bridge Foundations in Liquefiable Soil. ( 5.95 MB) (prepared for the TRB Workshop on New Approaches to Lliquefaction Analysis, 10 January 1999.)
J. K. Mitchell,
Reference List: Some Recent References on Improvement of Liquefiable Soils. (404 KB) (prepared for the TRB Workshop on New Approaches to Liquefaction Analysis, 10 January 1999.)
R. B. Seed,
Lecture Notes: Evaluation of Residual Shear Strength. (749 KB) (prepared for the TR13 Workshop on New Approaches to Liquefaction Analysis, 10 January 1999.)
 
R. D. Andrus and K. H. Stokoe,
Paper: Liquefaction Resistance Based on Shear Wave Velocity. (10.5 MB) (preprint of a paper delivered at the NCEER Workshop on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils. Note: a detailed report on this subject with updated plots and methodology is now available through the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).)
K. H. Stokoe,
Lecture Notes: Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance Using Shear Wave Velocity. (621 KB) (prepared for the TB Workshop on New Approaches to Liquefaction Analysis, 10 January 1999.)
T. L. Youd,
Excerpts: Screening Guide for Rapid Assessment of Liquefaction Hazard at Highway Bridge Sites. (3.28 MB) MCEER Technical Report MCEER-98-0005, 16 June 1998.)
T. L. Youd, P.S. Wiley, S. G. Gilstarp, and C.R. Peterson,
Excerpts: Executive Summary: Liquefaction Hazard Evacuation of Interstate, Federal and State Highway Bridges Sites in Utah. (964 KB) (Report to the Utah Department of Transportation, 30 December 1998.)
Geotechnical Engineering Publication web site: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/geopub.HTM

Introduction

On Sunday, 10 January 1999, as part of the 78th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (TRB), the leading researchers in the field assembled for a day-long Workshop on New Approaches to Liquefaction Potential. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provided funding for the workshop, which was co-sponsored by the TRB Committee on Foundations and Other Structures (A2K03) and the TRB Bridge Committee Task Force on Seismic Design (A2C52). The objectives of the workshop were to:

  • Introduce the geotechnical and bridge design communities to FHWA Geotechnical Engineering Circular (GEC) No. 3, Design Guidance: Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering for Highways, Volume 1 - Design Principles (Report No. FHWA-SA-97-076) and Volume 2 - Design Examples (Report No,. FHWA-SA-97-077);


  • Introduce the geotechnical and bridge design communities to Module 9, Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, of the National Highway Institute (NHI) Training Course in Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering; and

  • Supplement the section on seismic hazard analysis in GEC No. 3 with information on the 1997 National Center for Earthquake Engineering (NCEER) Recommendations for Ground Motion Characterization for Seismic Design of Highway Facilities; and

  • Supplement the information on liquefaction in GEC No. 3 with information on new approaches to evaluation of liquefaction potential, including the 1997 NCEER Workshop on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils and more recent development in the field.

Workshop presenters included:

  • Ian Friedland, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering (formerly NCEER) on the 1997 NCEER Recommendations for Ground Motion Characterization for Seismic Design of Highway Facilities;

  • Professor I.M. Idriss of the University of California at Davis with an Update on the Seed-Idriss Simplified Method;

  • Jeff Farrar of the United States Bureau of Reclamation on Energy Measurements During Standard Penetration Testing;

  • Professor Kenneth Stokoe of the University of Texas at Austin on Non-Intrusive Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential;

  • Professor T. Leslie Youd of Brigham Young University on Estimating Liquefaction-Induced Ground Deformations;

  • Professor Raymond B. Seed of the University of California at Berkeley on Evaluating Residual Shear Strength;

  • Professor Ricardo Dobry of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute on Lateral Resistance of Piles in Liquefiable Soil;

  • Professor James K. Mitchell of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University on Improvement of Liquefiable Soils;

  • Professor Geoffrey R. Martin of the University of Southern California on Remediation of Bridge Foundations in Liquefiable Soil; and

  • Professor W.D. Liam Finn of the University of British Columbia on Effective Stress Analysis of Soil Liquefaction.

In addition to these formal presentations, Dr. Edward Kavazanjian, Jr. of GeoSyntec Consultants, the workshop moderator, conducted two problem sessions to illustrate application of the methodology for liquefaction potential contained in the GEC manual and NHI training course. On the day after the workshop, the presenters participated in a lively panel discussion on Current Developments and Needs in Liquefaction Analysis at one of the regular sessions for the TRB meetings.

Agenda

Moderator: Edward Kavazanjian, Jr., GeoSyntec Consultants   

Opening Remarks: Phillip Yen, FHWA Office of Research

9:00 AM Introduction
Edward Kavazanjian, Jr., Geosyntec Consultants
9:10 AM MCEER Recommendations for Ground Motion Characterization for Seismic Design of Highway Facilities
Ian M. Friedland, MCEER  
9:30 AM Update on Seed-Idriss Simplified Method
I.M. Idriss, University of California Davis  
10:00 AM Energy Measurements During SPT Testing
Jeffrey A. Farrar, US Bureau of Reclamation  
10:20-10:40 AM BREAK  
10:40 AM Nonintrusive Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential
Kenneth H. Stokoe, II, University of Texas at Austin  
11:00 AM Exercise on Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential  
11:30 AM Estimating Liquefaction-Induced Ground Deformations
T. Leslie Youd, Brigham Young University
 
12:00-1:00 PM LUNCH (ON YOUR OWN)  
1:00 PM Evaluating Residual Shear Strength
Raymond B. Seed, University of California Berkeley  
1:30 PM Exercise on Post Liquefaction Stability and Deformation 
2:00 PM Lateral Resistance of Piles in Liquefiable Soils
Ricardo Dobry, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
 
2:30-2:50 PM BREAK  
2:50 PM Improvement of Liquefiable Soils
James K. Mitchell, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University  
3:20 PM Remediation of Bridge Foundations in Liquefiable Soils
Geoffrey R. Martin, University of Southern California  
3:50 PM Effective Stress Analysis of Soil Liquefaction
W. D. Liam Finn, University of British Columbia, Canada  
4:20-5:00 PM Panel Discussion on Current Developments and Needs in Liquefaction Analysis  

NOTE: Session 41: Seismic Ground Hazard, Monday, January 11, 1999, is an expert panel discussion on liquefaction.

 


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